**Earliest Computer**

- Originally calculations were computed by humans, whose job title was computers.
- These human computers were typically engaged in the calculation of a mathematical expression.
- The calculations of this period were specialized and expensive, requiring years of training in mathematics.
- The first use of the word "computer" was recorded in 1613, referring to a person who carried out calculations, or computations, and the word continued to be used in that sense until the middle of the 20th century

**Tally Sticks**:

- A tally stick was an ancient memory aid device to record and document numbers, quantities, or even messages.

**Abacus** An abacus is a mechanical device used to aid an individual in performing mathematical calculations.

- The abacus was invented in Babylonia in 2400 B.C.
- The abacus in the form we are most familiar with was first used in China in around 500 B.C.
- It used to perform basic arithmetic operations.

**Napier’s Bones **

- Invented by John Napier in 1614.
- Allowed the operator to multiply, divide and calculate square and cube roots by moving the rods around and placing them in specially constructed boards

**Slide Rule**

- Invented by William Oughtred in 1622.
- Is based on Napier's ideas about logarithms.
- Used primarily for

- Division
- Roots
- Logarithms
- Trigonometry
- Multiplication

- Not normally used for addition or subtraction. William Oughtred Slide Rule CSCA0101 Computing.

**Stepped Reckoner**

- Invented by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in 1672.
- The machine that can add, subtract, multiply and divide automatically.

**Arithmometer **

- A mechanical calculator invented by Thomas de Colmar in 1820,
- The first reliable, useful and commercially successful calculating machine.
- The machine could perform the four basic mathematic functions.
- The first mass-produced calculating machine.

**Difference Engine and Analytical Engine **

- It an automatic, mechanical calculator designed to tabulate polynomial functions.
- Invented by Charles Babbage in 1822 and 1834
- It is the first mechanical computer.

**First Computer Programmer**

- In 1840, Augusta Ada Byron suggests to Babbage that he use the binary system.
- She writes programs for the Analytical Engine.

**Scheutzian Calculation Engine**

- Invented by Per Georg Scheutz in 1843.
- Based on Charles Babbage's difference engine.
- The first printing calculator.

**Tabulating Machine **

- Invented by Herman Hollerith in 1890.
- To assist in summarizing information and accounting.

**Havard Mark 1**

- Also known as IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC).
- Invented by Howard H. Aiken in 1943 • The first electro-mechanical computer.

**Z1 **

- The first programmable computer.
- Created by Konrad Zuse in Germany from 1936 to 1938.
- To program the Z1 required that the user insert punch tape into a punch tape reader and all output was also generated through punch tape.

**Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC)**

- It was the first electronic digital computing device.
- Invented by Professor John Atanasoff and graduate student Clifford Berry at Iowa State University between 1939 and 1942

**UNIVAC 1**

- The UNIVAC I (UNIVersal Automatic Computer 1) was the first commercial computer.
- Designed by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly.

**The First Portable Computer **

- Osborne 1 – the first portable computer.
- Released in 1981 by the Osborne Computer Corporation

**The First Computer Company**

- The first computer company was the Electronic Controls Company.
- Founded in 1949 by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly.

(View Answer)

- 1.Write Sort Brief Evolution of computers timeline.
- 2.कंप्यूटर टाइमलाइन का सॉर्ट ब्रीफ इवोल्यूशन लिखें।
- 3.Which country used abacus first?
- 4.Which is the first calculating device?
- 5.Pascaline was invented in:
- 6.Who is known as Father of Computers?
- 7.Integrated Chip had been started in ?
- 8.ENIAC stands for:
- 9. Who invented Apple Computers?

RESPONSE BY USERS

- The first use of the word "computer" was recorded in 1613.
- Tally Sticks: A tally stick was an ancient memory aid device to record and document numbers, quantities, or even messages.
- Abacus: The abacus was invented in Babylonia in 2400 B.C.
- Napier’s Bones: Invented by John Napier in 1614.
- Stepped Reckoner: Invented by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in 1672. The machine that can add, subtract, multiply and

Related Topics

=> Introduction of Computer=> Advantage and Dis-Advantage of Computer

=> History of Computer

=> Generations of Computer

=> Fundamental Uses of Computers

=> Hardware

=> Software

=> Components of Computer

=> Type of Software

=> Relationship Between Hardware and Software

=> Type of Computer

=> Computer viruses and security

=> Basic computer maintenance

=> Working with window

=> Window Sortcut Key

=> Key/Symbol Name

Related Topics

=> Introduction of Computer=> Advantage and Dis-Advantage of Computer

=> History of Computer

=> Generations of Computer

=> Fundamental Uses of Computers

=> Hardware

=> Software

=> Components of Computer

=> Type of Software

=> Relationship Between Hardware and Software

=> Type of Computer

=> Computer viruses and security

=> Basic computer maintenance

=> Working with window

=> Window Sortcut Key

=> Key/Symbol Name

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